Major developments have taken place in diseases, diagnosis and treatment of microbial infections. Infectious disease may be an unavoidable fact of life. There are many strategies available to help protect humans from infectious diseases. With the advent of the modern pharmaceutical industry, biochemical approaches to preventing and treating disease have acquired a new level of prominence in the evolving relationship between microbes and their human hosts. Vaccinated people produce antibodies that neutralize a disease-causing virus or bacterium. They are much less likely to become infected and transmit those germs to others. Even people who have not been vaccinated may be protected by the immunity of the herd because the vaccinated people around them are not getting sick or transmitting the infection. Antibiotics are also powerful medicines that fight bacterial infections. They either kill bacteria or stop them from reproducing, allowing the body’s natural defenses to eliminate the pathogens.