Day2

  • Brighton and Sussex Medical School, United Kingdom
  • Title:Systematic Review of Ethiopian Medicinal Plants Used For their Anti-Inflammatory and Wound Healing Activities
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Abstract

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Plant materials are used worldwide as complementary and alternative therapeutics for the treatment of various illnesses. In Ethiopia, folk medicines are utilized across a wide range of cultures and settings. Ethiopia has numerous plant species of which around 12% are endemic, making it a rich source of medicinal plants that are potentially important for human wellbeing.
Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to assess Ethiopian medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory or wound healing activities, in an attempt to compile the information required for further investigation of their potential role in the management of lymphoedema.
Methods: A systematic review protocol was developed according to the preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) statement. The protocol for this review was registered on PROSPERO with registration number CRD42019127471. This review considers all controlled in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory and wound healing studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of Ethiopian medicinal plants. The search strategy included all articles containing descriptors such as Ethiopia, medicinal plants, herbal products, care, management, lymphoedema, lymphedema, swelling, podoconiosis, elephantiasis, wound, wound healing, inflammation, an anti-inflammatory that were published until June 28, 2019. Outcomes were measured as the percentage of inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cell inhibition, as the percentage of carrageenan-induced oedema (anti-inflammation) inhibition, and the percentage of cell migration and proliferation (wound healing). For quality assessment of individual animal studies, the Risk of Bias tool for animal intervention studies (SYRCLE’s RoB tool) criteria were used. For quality assessment of individual in vitro studies, the OECD guidelines and the WHO Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) handbook were used. Results: A total of 46 articles on anti-inflammatory and 17 articles on wound healing properties were reviewed. For the in vivo studies, Swiss albino mice and Wistar rats were used, and the concentration of plant extracts or fractions administered to the lab animals varied considerably. Acetone extract of Vernonia amygdalina (Delile) Sch.Bip. showed the fastest anti-inflammatory activity at lower concentrations in carrageenan-induced paw oedema. Conclusion: Lawsonia inermis, Azadirachta indica, Achyranthes aspera, and Cuminum cyminum are the most studied plant species in terms of anti-inflammatory activity, while Lawsonia inermis and Azadirachta indica are the most studied ones for wound healing. The most common in vivo techniques used for the anti-inflammatory and the wound healing assays were carrageenan-induced paw oedema, and excision and incision wound models, respectively.

Biography

Dereje Nigussie (MSc in Medical Pharmacology), Ph.D. Fellow, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, UK & CDT-Africa, Ethiopia

  • Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Israel
  • Title:Experience with SARS-COV-2 BNT162b2 Mrna Vaccine in Dialysis Patients
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Abstract

Backgound: The immune system is profoundly affected by uremia. End stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients may be more vulnerable to infections and may have suboptimal response to vaccination. For the SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19), patients with ESKD are at increased risk of infection and mortality. However, the representation of patients with CKD and ESKD in clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccines is low.
Patients and methods: We investigated dialysis patients and a control group that had completed 2 doses vaccination with the mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine for anti-spike protein antibody response. Results: One hundred sixty chronic dialysis patients (127 hemodialysis,33 peritoneal dialysis) and one hundred thirty-two control group persons were analyzed. 90 % of the dialysis group and 100% of the control group were positive for anti-spike antibodies, (p<0. 0001). The median level of anti-spike antibody was 116.5 AU/ml (IQR 66-160 AU/ml) in the dialysis group and 176.5 AU/ml (IQR 142-235 AU/ml) in the control group, (p<0.001). Six hemodialysis patients (3.75%) and none in the control group developed COVID-19 new infection (confirmed by positive COVID-19 RT-PCR) more than 7 days after completion of the recommended vaccination regimen, (P=0.033). Discussion: In this study Our main findings for the dialysis population as compared to a control group, are:1. Lower response rate to the vaccine,2. Lower anti-spike antibodies level and 3. Higher rate of COVID-19 infection after completion of vaccination. Other preliminary reports on the immunogenicity of the COVID- 19 BNT162b2 vaccine report similar findings. Considering the results of our study, and while many limitations related to COVID-19 are expected to ease, we may consider maintaining physical distancing and other recommended measures in place for better protection of the dialysis population. Biography: Noa Berar Yanay, MD, MHA, Specialist in Nephrology, specialist in Internal Medicine, Head of nephrology, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel

  • University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
  • Title:Cellulose Nanocrystals in Cancer Diagnostics and Treatment
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Abstract

Cancer is currently a major threat to public health, being among the principal causes of death to the global population. With carcinogenesis mechanisms, cancer invasion, and metastasis remaining blurred, cancer diagnosis and novel drug delivery approaches should be developed urgently to enable management and treatment. A dream break-through would be a non-invasive instantaneous monitoring of cancer initiation and progression to fast-track diagnosis for timely specialist treatment decisions. These innovations would enhance the established treatment protocols, unlimited by evasive biological complexities during tumorigenesis. It is therefore contingent that emerging and future scientific technologies be equally biased towards such innovations by exploiting the apparent properties of new developments and materials especially nanomaterials. CNCs as nanomaterials have undisputable physical and excellent biological properties that enhanced their interest as biomedical materials. This article therefore highlights CNCs utility in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Their extraction, properties, modification, in- vivo/in-vitro medical applications, biocompatibility, challenges and future perspectives are precisely discussed.

Biography

Ishaq Lugoloobi (orcid No: 0000-0003-1640-6219) received his B.Sc., in Chemistry and Biology (major) and Education (minor) at Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST), Uganda, with support from the meritorious Uganda government undergraduate scholarship and emerged among the top best students at the university.
In 2018, he received an international Chinese government scholarship to continue his studies. In 2021, he graduated as a research student from Donghua University, Shanghai-China, pursuing M.Sc. Chemistry Engineering and Technology degree. His research focus is on the nanoengineering of biological and chemical molecules for chemical applications such as conductivity and biological applications such as drug delivery. He also has an interest in engineering pharmaceutical molecules.

  • University Hospital Zagreb, Croatia
  • Title:COVID-19 Convalescent Plasma in Immunodeficient Patients
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Abstract

Since the first described case in December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been one of the most significant challenges of our time. The clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic to critical forms with acute respiratory distress syndrome and death. The most endangered patients are the adults older than 60 years, the patients with comorbidities, especially immunodeficiencies. A targeted therapy and exact treatment protocols are lacking due to the not fully known pathogenesis. Passive immunotherapy with convalescent plasma transfusion represents a potentially effective therapy for some patients with impaired cellular and humoral immunity. This could be a long-term, ”chronic” therapy for COVID-19 for this group of patients, especially for bridging the period when the immune system cannot produce by itself the antibodies needed for viral clearance.

Biography

Dr. Dina Rnjak was born in Osijek, Croatia in 1989. She obtained her medical degree at Faculty of medicine, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek. Her residency was at Special Hospital for Lung Diseases Zagreb and at The Clinic for Lung Diseases, University Hospital Zagreb. Dr. Rnjak is a member of the Croatian Thoracic Society, Croatian Resoiratory Society, European Respiratory Society, Croatian Medical Association.

  • General Director of Allied Health Service, Palastine
  • Title:COVID-19 in Eastern Mediterranean Region; Impact on Blood Supplies and Transfusion Services
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ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spurred a global health crisis.The safety and supply of blood during this pandemic has been a concern of different blood banks and transfusion services as it is expected to reduce the blood supply and adversely affect blood system activities. We aim to assess the situation in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR) region during the first months of the pandemic. Methods: A survey was designed to address blood supply, transfusion demand and donor management during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Medical directors of different blood banks were invited to participate. Results: Total of 17 responses were received with representation from 15 countries in the region. 76% were from national blood banks. Most centers had a drop in the blood supply, ranging 10-75%. Representatives from 14 countries (93.3%) believed that public fear has contributed to decrease in donations. Most centers (n=12, 70%) had a reduction in transfusion demand, while those who didn’t reported heavy involvement in treating patients with underlying hemoglobinopathies and haematological malignancies. Half of the centers activated their emergency & contingency plans. Four centers had to alter the blood donor deferral criteria in order to meet demands. All centers implemented donor deferral criteria in relation to SARS-CoV-2, but were variable in other measures to mitigate the risk of donor and staff exposure. Conclusions: Blood services in the region faced variable degrees of blood shortages. Blood services need to take steps to plan, assess, and respond proportionately to future similar pandemics.

Biography:

I am the General Director of Allied Health Services at the Palestinian Ministry of Health and the Presidant of the syndicate of the Palestinian Medical Technology Association. In addition, I am the President of the Arab Federation of Clinical Biology. I hold a Master degree in Medical Laboratory Sciences and a high diploma in Management for Middle Managers I am an astute manager, I led the capacity building of Lab. Medicine in Palestine particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. I have several research activities and coauthored several publications.

  • University of North Carolina, United States
  • Title:Mycotoxins Causing Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
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Abstract

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis(ALS) remains a terminal disease without an established etiology for the majority of patients. The dominant theory of ALS before the 1970’s was the presence of a poison. One of the primary means of treating patients with a toxic exposure has been plasma exchange, but plasma exchange of ALS patients failed to alter the clinical course. The failure of plasma exchange assumes the patient is no longer exposed to the poison. If the exposure to poisons continued, then plasma exchange alone would fail. I found laboratory evidence of a poisoning in every patient with ALS examined. A search for specific poisons found evidence of mycotoxins. Treatment with antifungal agents corrected the laboratory findings. All of the ALS patients had evidence of immune suppression. There is mounting evidence that many mycotoxins cause both neurotoxicity and immune suppression. These mycotoxins may be able to explain the full spectrum of pathology in ALS without a secondary event.

  • Chengdu Second People’s Hospital, China
  • Title:Burkholderia Gladioli Infection Isolated from the Blood Cultures of Newborns in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
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Abstract

Burkholderia gladioli was described as a plant pathogen, and it is a rare cause of infection in humans that is primarily associated with human pulmonary infections, such as chronic granulomatous disease and cystic fibrosis. The neonatal respiratory system is not fully developed and cannot expel bacterial aerosol properly. A total of 2,676 newborns in the neonatal intensive care unit were retrospectively analysed in Putian City, Fujian Province, China, from 2011 to 2014. All of the blood samples were tested for C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and white blood cell (WBC). B. gladioli infections were determined and analysed using a blood culture system. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the K-B method. Of the 2,676 participants, 87 (3.25 %) had a positive B. gladioli blood culture that occurred >72 h after birth, including a premature group (54.0 %, asphyxia [vs. 9.20 %], fever [vs. 13.80 %], pneumonia [vs. 6.90 %] and hyperbilirubinaemia [vs. 8.05 %]) and newborns with necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) (vs. 5.75 %). The mean±standard deviation (SD) of the CRP level was 12.31±0.26 mg/L and that of the PCT level was 1.53±0.21 ng/ml in the 87 B. gladioli-infected newborns. Most of the B. gladioli isolates were sensitive to many antimicrobial agents and did not lead to serious consequences. All of the B. gladioli-infected newborns were unhealthy, especially the premature infants. B. gladioli might be a causative bacteraemia agent in neonates, it appears to have pathogenic potential in newborns and its sensitivity to antibiotics may be a beneficial factor.

Biography

Zhou fangye, female, graduated from pathogenic biology of Peking Union Medical College in 2012, and now works in Chengdu Second People’s hospital. He mainly engaged in the research of pathogenic biology and infectious diseases, published 5 SCI papers and presided over 3 scientific research projects.

  • Al-Baydha University, Yemen.
  • Title:Targeting Hif-1α by Newly Synthesized Indolephenoxyacetamide (Ipa) Analogs to Induce Anti-Angiogenesis Mediated Solid Tumor Suppression
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Abstract

Background: Hypoxic microenvironment is a common feature of solid tumors, which leads to the promotion of cancer. The transcription factor, HIF-1α, expressed under hypoxic conditions stimulates tumor angiogenesis, favoring HIF-1α as a promising anticancer agent. On other hand, synthetic Indolephenoxyacetamide derivatives are known for their pharmacological potentiality. With this background here, we have synthesized, characterized, and validated the new IPA (8a-n) analogs for anti-tumor activity. Methods: The new series of IPA (8a-n) were synthesized through a multi-step reaction sequence and characterized based on the different spectroscopic analysis FT-IR, 1H, 13C NMR, mass spectra, and elemental analyses. Cell-based screening of IPA (8a-n) was assessed by MTT assay. Anti-angiogenic efficacy of IPA (8k) validated through CAM, Rat corneal, tube formation and migration assay. The underlying molecular mechanism is validated through zymogram and IB studies. The in-vivo anti-tumor activity was measured in the DLA solid tumor model. Results: Screening for anti-proliferative studies inferred, IPA (8k) is a lead molecule with an IC50 value of ˜5 μM. Anti-angiogenic assays revealed the angiopreventive activity through inhibition of HIF-1α and modulation downstream regulatory genes, VEGF, MMPs, and P53. The results are confirmative in an in-vivo solid tumor model. Conclusion: The IPA (8k) is a potent anti-proliferative molecule with anti-angiogenic activity and specifically targets HIF1α, thereby modulates its downstream regulatory genes both in-vitro and in-vivo. The study provides scope for new target-specific drug development against HIF-1α for the treatment of solid tumors.

Biography

Fares Hezam Al-Ostoot, Obtained his MSc at SRTM University in 2015 goting first class with distinction, and he is a Ph.D. research scholar, currently works at the Department of Medical Biochemistry, Mysore University, Mysuru, India. He joined as an assistant professor at Al-Baydha University, Yemen in 2008. He is an academic lecturer in the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Education and Science, University of Al-Baydaah, Yemen. He has published more than 34 research articles in reputed journals.

  • Jamia Millia Islamia University, New Delhi
  • Title:Natural Compounds of Amaranthaceae: As a Novel Potentiate Factor Against Mtb Infection
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Abstract

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a bacterium that is difficult to defeat. It is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality and is the primary cause of Tuberculosis (TB). Elective curative methodologies are increasingly securing drug hindrance for TB requests. The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of TB to fortify chemotherapy regimens has been studied. The study presented was carried out to investigate the efficacy of the family plant Amaranthaceae against Invitro and Insilico anti-tuberculosis activity. Plant extracts were prepared in various solvents from aerial and root components tested for total phenolic and flavonoid content (TPC & TFC). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against various strains of MTB determined the effectiveness of plant extract and the higher MIC extract was studied for phytoconstituents. Their targeted Mtb proteins were characterized by molecular docking and clarifying the mechanism behind bacterial growth inhibition. The targeted bacterial protein will be characterized biochemically and biophysically. Amaranthaceae plant methanol extract was successively fractionated in different solvents and the ethyl acetate faction showed high TPC and TFC concentrations and maximum anti-tuberculosis activity in (ATCC 27294) strain. Molecular docking evaluated the top 10 targeted bacterial proteins with binding affinity (>-8.5 Kcal/mol) with respective phytoconstituents. In biophysical activities therefore the selected compound has showed the significant outcome for utilize in antituberculosis approaches. The study accomplishes that Ethyl acetate exhibited promising antituberculosis activity and can further utilize in pharmacology field for effective treatment against TB. Targeted protein of the identified compounds was determined which will be helpful in further accentuate their mechanism of action in virulence.

Biography

Md Amjad Beg is a PhD student in CIRBSc, Jamia Millia Islamia University New Delhi, India. He has 16 publication which is in peer reviewed journals. His scientific interests focus on the field of Medicinal Chemistry, Microbiology, Molecular Biology and Computational Biology. His main objectives are to understand the working mechanism and effectiveness of plant extract and natural compounds over Mycobacterium (MTB). Due to the limitation of a drug for this malady, this study might be a beneficial step towards understanding the impact of these proteins and phytochemicals over bacterium.

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