- University of California Irvine, USA
- Title:E-cigarette Vaping and COVID-19: Contributing Biological Factors Underlying Individual Differences
- Time :
Tobacco addiction remains one of the largest preventable causes of disease and death worldwide. Recently, the use of nicotine e-cigarettes has dramatically increased among many populations, including youth. These devastating trends have been paralleled by the increasing mortality rate due to the COVID-19 pandemic. With these infections, symptoms range from mild to severe. Cigarettes and other chemical constituents in vape solutions may induce inflammation and damage lung tissue, thereby potentially leading to more severe symptomology with viral infection. In lung tissue, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) mechanistically underlies viral entry of COVID-19. In this talk, I will discuss our recent findings that have examined the effects of e-cigarette vapor inhalation on ACE2 and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression in male and female mice. Together, we reveal a mechanistic link between e-cigarette vaping and ACE2 expression, which supports the contention that nicotine vaping contributes to individual vulnerability for coronavirus infection.
Dr. Christie Fowler is an Associate Professor in the Department of Neurobiology and Behavior at the University of California Irvine. Her research aims to elucidate the neurobiological, epigenetic and extracellular signaling mechanisms underlying drug addiction. Dr. Fowler currently serves on the editorial boards for the Journal of Neuroscience, eNeuro and Neuropsychopharmacology, and on the executive committee for the Irvine Center for Addiction Neuroscience (ICAN). Of further note, Dr. Fowler received the highly prestigious Avenir Award from NIDA, and she was highlighted as a ‘Scientist to Watch’ by The Scientist magazine.
- University of Calgary, Canada
- Title:Prevalence, Clinical Characteristics, and Outcomes of Pediatric COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
- Time :
The novel coronavirus pandemic is an ongoing challenge faced by the public and health care systems around the globe. Majority of information and evidence gathered so far has been derived from data and studies in adult populations. Crucial information regarding the characterization, clinical symptomatology, sequelae, and overall outcomes in the pediatric population is lacking. As such, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis and systematic review to collect and analyze current evidence about COVID-19 in the pediatric population. A systematic search and review of scientific literatures was conducted in various databases following the PRISMA guidelines. All relevant studies until June 16, 2020 were included. Studies were reviewed for methodological quality, and random-effects model was used to conduct the primary meta-analysis. I2 value and Egger’s test was used to estimate heterogeneity and publication bias respectively. We reviewed 20 eligible studies that included 1810 pediatric patient population (<21 yo) with PCR tested COVID-19 positivity. In pooled data, majority (25 % [CI 18-32], I2 59 %) of overall COVID-19 positive patients fell in the 6-10 yr age group. 13 % ([CI 11-14], I2 78 %) of the patients were asymptomatic, with headache (67 % [CI 60-74], I2 46 %), fever (55 % [CI 52-58], I2 61 %), and cough (45 % [CI 42-49], I2 79 %) accounting for the most prevalent physical signs seen in symptomatic patients. Leukopenia (12 % [CI 9-15], I250 %) and lymphopenia (15 % [CI 13-19], I2 85 %) was common. Elevated Ferritin (26 % [CI 16-40], I2 73 %), Procal (25 % [CI 21-29 %], I2 83 %), and CRP (19 % [CI 16-22 %], I2 74 %) were other laboratory abnormalities commonly observed. Common radiological features were ground-glass opacities (36 % [CI 32-39 %], I2 92 %), normal finding (33 % [CI 30-36 %], I2 81 %), and consolidation. 29 % ([CI 26-33], I2 85 %) of the patient cases was non-severe, whereas only 5 % ([CI 1-8], I2 87 %) was severe. Mortality was observed in 0.3 % ([CI 0.1-0.4], I2 0%) of the overall cases. Results showed that COVID-19 is prevalent across all pediatric age-groups and presents with varying degree of symptomology. However, children have a milder course of the disease with extremely favorable prognosis. Laboratory and radiological features are inconsistent and require further investigations. Additional studies are needed on this topic to corroborate findings and establish evidence-based and consistent characterization of COVID-19 in the pediatric population. Biography
Sujeena Badal, M.P.H., currently works as a research associate/ analyst at BLH Technologies, Inc. in Rockville, Maryland, USA. Ms. Badal is skilled with expert knowledge of public health polices and issues including behavioral health in vulnerable populations, youth mental health, and health disparities in minority populations. Experienced in project management, literature reviews, and data analysis using quantitative and qualitative tools, with extensive experience developing inter-agency relations. Ms. Badal also hosts on-site conferences, as well as virtual meetings and webinars using online virtual platforms which includes facilitation and providing logistic and technical support. Ms. Badal earned an M.P.H. in Epidemiology from University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center in Oklahoma and a B.A. in Biology from The College of Saint Scholastica in Minnesota. Before joining BLH Technologies, she had opportunity to intern at Oklahoma State Department of Health, where she worked on Oklahoma State Health Report and conducted extensive statistical analyses on data obtained from Weight Management Clinic Program. She also completed one- year internship at Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, where she conducted literature reviews on various evidence-based programs, including quantitative and qualitative research, and policy analysis to improve behavioral health services.
- Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Israel
- Title:Experience with SARS-COV-2 BNT162b2 Mrna Vaccine in Dialysis Patients
- Time :
Backgound: The immune system is profoundly affected by uremia. End stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients may be more vulnerable to infections and may have suboptimal response to vaccination. For the SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19), patients with ESKD are at increased risk of infection and mortality. However, the representation of patients with CKD and ESKD in clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccines is low.
Patients and methods: We investigated dialysis patients and a control group that had completed 2 doses vaccination with the mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine for anti-spike protein antibody response. Results: One hundred sixty chronic dialysis patients (127 hemodialysis,33 peritoneal dialysis) and one hundred thirty-two control group persons were analyzed. 90 % of the dialysis group and 100% of the control group were positive for anti-spike antibodies, (p<0. 0001). The median level of anti-spike antibody was 116.5 AU/ml (IQR 66-160 AU/ml) in the dialysis group and 176.5 AU/ml (IQR 142-235 AU/ml) in the control group, (p<0.001). Six hemodialysis patients (3.75%) and none in the control group developed COVID-19 new infection (confirmed by positive COVID-19 RT-PCR) more than 7 days after completion of the recommended vaccination regimen, (P=0.033). Discussion: In this study Our main findings for the dialysis population as compared to a control group, are:1. Lower response rate to the vaccine,2. Lower anti-spike antibodies level and 3. Higher rate of COVID-19 infection after completion of vaccination. Other preliminary reports on the immunogenicity of the COVID- 19 BNT162b2 vaccine report similar findings. Considering the results of our study, and while many limitations related to COVID-19 are expected to ease, we may consider maintaining physical distancing and other recommended measures in place for better protection of the dialysis population. Biography: Noa Berar Yanay, MD, MHA, Specialist in Nephrology, specialist in Internal Medicine, Head of nephrology, Hillel Yaffe Medical Center, Hadera, Israel
- Monash Health, Australia
- Title:An Unusual Distribution of Herpes Zoster Mandibularis Post Total Parotidectomy
- Time :
Herpes zoster is a disease caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus, presenting with a prodrome of severe pain and fever followed by a typical cutaneous vesicular eruption in a dermatomal distribution. Herpes zoster rarely involves the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. This case highlights an unusual presentation of herpes zoster mandibularis in an immunocompromised patient with previous head and neck surgery, with relative sparing of the cheek. Previous parotid surgery led to an atypical anatomical pattern of herpes zoster reactivation. Sparing of regions within the dermatome may occur due to damage to sensory fibres innervating the skin during surgery as the axonal transport mechanisms are likely disrupted. Previous surgery can make diagnosis difficult by affecting the pattern of varicella zoster virus presentation, leading to uncharacteristic clinical features. This case demonstrates the importance of critically considering past medical and surgical history in clinical diagnosis and management of the disease.
- University of Naples Federico II , Italy
- Title:CRT Implantation after TLE in a Patient with COVID-19: Endocarditis Triggered by SARS-COV-2 Infection? A Case Report
- Time :
In the era of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the management of cardiac implantable electronic devices infections with concomitant viral infection has not been completely defined yet. In this explorable context, we report the first experience of a Cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) implantation after transvenous lead extraction for endocarditis in a COVID-19 patient. We describe both the measures and procedures implemented to reduce the cross-infection in the operating room and our clinical practice to improving procedure effectiveness on patient care.
Graduated from the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery at the University of Naples “Federico II” and then further specialised in Cardiology. Dr. Stefano De Vivo for 30 years has taken care of his patients with dedication and passion. As a cardiologist he keeps himself updated with all new developments, specialising in Arrhythmology and diseases of the cardiovascular system. Today he is a first level manager at the “Azienda Ospedaliera dei Colli” in Naples where he has obtained the function for the management and extraction of CIED (cardiac implantable electronic devices).
- Pontifical Catholic University of Goiás, Brazil
- Title:The Effects of Cannabis and/or Cocaine on Systemic Inflammation in Humans
- Time :
Illicit drug use can cause a variety of effects including alterations in the immune system. The goal of our study was to evaluate the impact of illicit drug use on inflammation and oxydative stress status in people living with HIV (PLHIV) or not. Circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS), inflammatory and regulatory cytokines, oxidative stress markers and cellular imune response were investigated in the blood of those groups using or not cannabis and/or cocaine.
Dr Pfrimer is professor at Pontifical Catholic University of Goias, Goiania, Brazil. She did her postdoctoral research at Federal University of Sao Paulo. She has published research articles, and book chapters in the field of HIV, Zika and Viral Hepatitis.
- University of the Army and Air Force, Mexico
- Title:Stability Analysis and Numerical Simulation of Gravitactic Bioconvection in a Rectangular Cavity
- Time :
The bioconvection of gravitactic microorganisms, through linear analysis and numerical simulation is presented. Using the basic state as initial condition for both microorganisms and streamlines, the critical Rayleigh number and the bioconvection are predicted. The dynamic microorganisms’ behavior is influenced by the initial spatial distribution. The stability of the system is dependent on the horizontal wave component that is inversely related to wavelength. The pattern length and the instability of the process are associated with the horizontal component of the wave number and the characteristic wavelength, respectively. Using complex and real eigenvalues, five unstable and three stable rolls are found, respectively. The three stable rolls is the dominant pattern when varying the principal variables of this bioconvective process.
Dr. Rubén Mil-Martínez received his Ph.D. from the National Polytechnic Institute of Mexico in Mechanical Engineering. He is a Professor in the Department of Industrial Military Engineers, at the Military School Engineers of Mexico, since 2016. He is currently working as a full-time professor performing research in the areas of exterior ballistic, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, rheology, and pattern formations of microorganisms. He has the distinction of being a candidate of the National System of Researchers of Mexico.
- University Agostinho Neto, Luanda-Angola.
- Title:May Vital Signs And Biochemical Markers Be Easy Predictors Of Malaria Outcomes? Results Of An Observational Study In Angola
- Time :
Background: the search for predictors of malaria outcome is essential, because a successful, inexpensive, fast and easy to measure predictive test, with minimal infrastructure requirements or specialized training, can be used in malaria endemic environments to reduce serious outcomes and reducing the impact of the disease in poor countries like Angola. Objective: analyze whether vital signs and biochemical markers can be easily predictors of malaria outcome. Methodology: the study was a cross-sectional study and quantitative approach in 194 patients hospitalized for malaria evaluated in five of the seven days of follow-up. Descriptive statistics were computed using the SPSS v20.0 statistical programs and graphs in the Sigmaplot 12.0. Results: of the 194 patients followed, 68 were discharged, 22 died and 104 remained hospitalized after 7 days of follow-up, the mean parasitemia value was higher among patients whose outcome was death (2,909 p/mm3, SD=45) when compared to patients who were discharged (2,258 p/mm3, SD=3,301) and patients who remained hospitalized at the end of the study (1,269, SD=1,557), the mean of parasitemia at the end of the study was less than 60 p/mm3. The highest mean of creatinine was observed in patients who died both on admission (3.7 mg/dL, SD=1.8), compared to patients who remained in hospital (1.8 mg/dL, SD=2.3) and patients were discharged from the hospital (1.5 mg/dL, SD=1.9), however, although there were some changes over the follow-up period, the final mean creatinine of the study was greater than 1.6 mg/dL in all groups and the highest among those who had died (2.8 mg/dL, SD=1.8). Patients who died had a higher mean urea value at admission (78.3 mg/dL, SD=54.9), compared with patients who had been hospitalized (52.3 mg/dL, SD=41.7) and patients were discharged from hospital (48.1 mg/dL, SD=44.9), however, although there were some changes over the follow-up period, the final mean urea in all groups was greater than 44 mg/dL in all groups, especially in patients, died (74 mg/dL, SD=56). The highest mean temperature value was observed in patients who died (37.7ºC, SD = 1.7), compared to the temperature of hospitalized patients (37ºC, SD = 1.2) and patients who were discharged from hospital (36.8ºC , SD = 1.2), at the end of the study, the final mean temperature in all groups was above 36.6 ºC. Another vital sign that presented a higher mean of greater value in patients who died were respiratory cycles (22.7 cycles/min, SD=3.7), compared to the temperature of hospitalized patients (21.6 cycles/min, SD=4.1) and patients discharged from hospital (21.2 cycles/min, SD=3.5), at the end of the follow-up the final average of respiratory cycles in all groups was greater than 21.1 cycles/min. The mean weight of patients who were discharged from death was the highest observed in the study (69 kg, SD = 13), when compared to patients who were discharged and who were hospitalized (less than 64.7 kg, SD less than 11.8), at the end of the follow-up, the patients average weight did not change.The highest mean systolic blood pressure value was observed in patients who remained hospitalized (140.9 mmHg, SD=37), however patients who were discharged and patients who died, had similar mean systolic pressure (133.2 mmHg, SD=34) and at the end of the follow-up, the mean systolic pressure in all groups was less than 128 mmHg. Diastolic pressure did not show a big difference between the three groups of patients followed (less than 83 mmHg, SD less than 29) in patients who were discharged, who died, and who remained hospitalized, at the end of the follow-up, the mean pressure diastolic in all groups was less than 79.4 mmHg. The mean oxygen saturation value also did not show much difference between patients who were discharged, who died and who remained hospitalized (greater than 98%, SD less than 3.2), at the end of the follow-up the average desaturation of oxygen in all groups remained above 98.2%. Conclusions: markers such as parasitemia, urea and creatinine, associated with vital signs such as temperature, pulse, stroke cycles, weight and systolic blood pressure seem to be predictors of outcomes in the population studied, especially on admission, however they vary over time and therefore there are needs for further studies to assess the extent to which these predictors are important signs of outcomes. Vital signs such as temperature, pulse, breathing cycles and systolic blood pressure were shown to be initial predictors of outcomes and biochemical markers such as urea and creatinine appeared to be permanent predictors of outcomes, which is why poor countries like Angola where in most hospital units do not offer conditions for carrying out laboratory tests, the use of predictors such as these can make a difference in the medical and medication approach and reduce the impact of malaria on patients’ lives.
Keywords: I. vital signs II. biochemical markers III. easily predictors IV. malaria outcome.
PhD in Health Sciences by the Graduate Program of the School of Medicine of PONTIFÍCIA UNIVERSIDADE CATÓLICA DO PARANÁ (PUCPR) in 2017. Master’s Degree in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology by the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at the School of Biological Sciences and Health UNIVERSITY FEDERAL DO PARANÁ (UFPR) in 2014. Postgraduate (Specialization) in Clinical and General Microbiology by the School of Biosciences at PONTIFÍCIA UNIVERSIDADE CATÓLICA DO PARANÁ (PUCPR) in 2012. Postgraduate (Specialization) in Health Surveillance by the FACULDADE DE CIENCES DE WENCESLAU BRAZ (FACIBRA) in 2017. Graduation in Nursing from the SUPERIOR HEALTH SCIENCES INSTITUTE of UNIVERSITY AGOSTINHO NETO (ISCISA/UAN) in 2010. Graduation in Pedagogy from the FACULTY OF SCIENCES OF WENCESLAU BRAZ (FACIBRA) in 2017. He is post-doctoral student in Health Sciences at the School of Medicine of PONTIFÍCIA UNIVERSIDADE CATÓLICA DO PARANÁ (PUCPR). He is currently a professor at the INSTITUTO SUPERIOR DE HEALTH SCIENCES/UNIVERSIDADE AGOSTINHO NETO. He has experience in the area of General Nursing, with an emphasis on Urgent and Emergency Care, Public Health and Intensive Care. He has experience in service administration and head of nursing teams, especially in Urgent and Emergency Care and has also worked in intensive care. He has experience in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and General Microbiology, working mainly in teaching, laboratory research and hospital care. He works with research projects focused on comorbidity and mortality in malaria, Acute Kidney Injury in malaria, CKD, Polymorphism of blood groups and susceptibility to malaria, sickle cell anemia and malaria and other projects.
- Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China
- Title:PORIMIN: The Key to (+)-Usnic Acid-Induced Liver Toxicity and Oncotic Cell Death in Normal Human L02 Liver Cell
- Time :
Usnic acid (UA) is one of the well-known lichen metabolites that induces liver injury. It is mainly extracted from Usnea longissima and U. diffracta in China or from other lichens in other countries. U. longissima has been used as traditional Chinese medicine for treatment of cough, pain, indigestion, wound healing and infection. More than 20 incidences with hepatitis and liver failure have been reported by the US Food and Drug Administration since 2000. UA is an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation causing glutathione and ATP depletion. Previous histological studies observed extensive cell and organelle swellings accompanied with hydrotropic vacuolization of hepatocytes.
Aim of the study
This study was to investigate the mechanism of UA-induced liver toxicity in normal human L02 liver cells and ICR mice using various techniques, such as immunoblotting and siRNA transfection.
Materials and methods
Assays were performed to evaluate the oxidative stress and levels of glutathione, malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase. Double flouresencence staining was used for the detection of apoptotic cell death. The protein expressions, such as glutathione S transferase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase 4, catalase, c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase, caspases, gastamin-D and porimin were detected by Western blotting. Comparisons between transfected and non-transfected cells were applied for the elucidation of the role of porimin in UA-induced hepatotoxicity. Histopathological examination of mice liver tissue, serum total bilirubin and hepatic enzymes of alanine aminotransferase and aspatate aminotransferase were also studied.
The protein expressions of glutathione reductase, glutathione S transferase and glutathione peroxidase-4 were increased significantly in normal human L02 liver cells. Catalase expression was diminished in dose-dependent manner. Moreover, (+)-UA did not induce the activation of caspase-3, caspase-1 or gasdermin-D. No evidence showed the occurrence of pyroptosis. However, the porimin expressions were increased significantly. In addition, (+)- UA caused no cytotoxicity in the porimin silencing L02 cells.
In conclusion, (+)-UA induces oncotic L02 cell death via increasing protein porimin and the formation of irreversible membrane pores. This may be the potential research area for future investigation in different aspects especially bioactivity and toxicology.
Dr. Sukfan Phyllis Kwong received her Bachelor Degree in Pharmacy from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA in 1993. She gained her Master of Clinical Pharmacy from the University of Sunderland in 2007. She practiced in both community and hospital pharmacy over 20 years. In 2020, she obtained her Ph.D in traditional Chinese medicine from the Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Her research interests are analytical chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology and therapeutics in both chemical and natural products.
- RIKEN Center for Brain Science, Japan
- Title:A Receptor of Shiga Toxin, Galabiosylceramide is Present in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid
- Time :
Shiga toxin is a potent cytotoxin. Infection with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes not only bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) but also neurological disorders. Disorders in central nervous system (CNS) function are the main cause of sudden death in patients with STEC-HUS. CNS complications occur in approximately 30% of STEC-HUS patients. Shiga toxin has been demonstrated to affect the CNS through globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) localized in neurons. Shiga toxin binds to Galα(1,4)Galβ (galabiose), which is located terminally in the oligosaccharide chain of Gb3 and galabiosylceramide (Gb2). Gb2 and its structural isomer, lactosylceramide (LacCer), are ceramide dihexosides (CDH). Gb2 is synthesized by α-1,4-galactosyltransferase (A4GALT), which transfers the galactose residue from UDP-galactose to galactosylceramide (GalCer). While Gb2 has been reported to be in the liver, kidney, and urine, its presence in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has not been reported. In this study, we isolated CDH fractions from CSF of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. Purified CDH fractions showed positive reaction with Shiga toxin. The isolated CDH fractions were analyzed by hydrophilic interaction chromatography/mass spectrometry (HILIC/MS). HILIC columns, which are widely used for separating isomeric glycolipids, were effective for separating LacCer and Gb2. HILIC/MS revealed the presence of Gb2 and LacCer in the fractions. Gb2 was also detected in CSF from neurologically normal control subjects. HILIC/MS also revealed the presence of Gb2 having hydroxy fatty acids (HFA) as their N-acyl chains in the isolated CDH fractions, suggesting that Gb2 is synthesized from HFA-containing GalCer. In the CNS, GalCer is synthesized in oligodendrocytes, and more than half of them contains HFA. GalCer and A4GALT have been suggested to localize in pia mater. Pia mater forms choroid plexus, which secretes CSF. Although Gb2 expression in pia mater or choroid plexus has not been reported, Gb2 might be synthesized by A4GALT from GalCer in choroid plexus and secreted into CSF. This is the first report of the existence of Gb2 in human CSF. Although it is not yet clear whether Gb2 is localized in the CNS, it will be important to determine whether CNS complications in patients with STEC-HUS is mediated also by Gb2, not only by Gb3.
Hisako AKIYAMA obtained her Ph.D. in Cell Biology in March 2011 from Ochanomizu University in Japan. From April 2011 to March 2013, she worked as a research fellow in Ochanomizu University and she discovered a new function of acid β-glucosidase (GBA1) as a transglucosidase to form glucosylated cholesterol (GlcChol) in vitro. Impaired GBA1 function is associated with Gaucher disease and Parkinson’s disease (PD). In 2013, she received a research fellowship from RIKEN and moved to RIKEN, Brain Science Institute as the Special Postdoctoral Researcher under the supervision of Dr. Yoshio Hirabayashi. During her postdoc, she discovered the existence of GlcChol in the brain. Although GlcChol was thought to be the sole sterylglucoside in vertebrate, GlcChol was found to form a group of glucosylated sterols including a plant type glucosylated sitosterol and a bacterial type galactosylated cholesterol (GalChol) in vertebrate brain. In 2016, she was appointed as a research scientist in RIKEN, Center for Brain Science and started a project to identify enzyme responsible for metabolizing the newly found-brain glycosylated sterols in vivo. She established a method to quantify the brain glycosylated sterols by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and found that GBA1 and neutral β-glucosidase GBA2 regulate formation and degradation of the brain glycosylated sterols. Impaired GBA2 function is associated with cerebellar ataxia and spastic paraplegia. In 2018, she received a research grant “Fostering Joint International Research” from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and she visited at Leiden Institute of Chemistry in Leiden University as a visiting researcher from August 2018 to February 2019. During that period, she discovered that GBA2 is responsible for GalChol formation. After returning from Leiden University, she started a new project aiming to develop an analytical platform using LC/MS to understand biological functions of brain glycolipids including the glycosylated sterols. During the development, she discovered that galabiosylceramide is present in human cerebrospinal fluid and that brain glycosylated sterols levels are changed in PD model animals. Her project on brain glycolipids offers a potential for predictive medicine as a source of novel diagnostic biomarkers as well as drug targets for therapies of brain diseases such as PD.
- Midtown Medicare Clinic, Japan
- Title:Candida-Associated Gastric Ulcer until Yesterday, Today, and from Tomorrow
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Candida-associated gastric ulcer occurs not only in debilitated but healthy individuals. Though had been reported to demonstrate nothing but nonspecific endoscopic features, it occasionally exhibits a typical finding I designated a candidarium. The natural history of the disease had not been clarified and the recurrence had not been described: the fungus had been reported to become undetectable once the ulcers were healed.
However, I demonstrated that the ulcer not only occurs but also recurs in a different site with a different shape in a non-diabetic, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-negative patient, who has not been given non- steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, antineoplastic agents, or systemic corticosteroids, advocating that, contrary to the prevailing opinion, Candida is no innocuous bystander but an etiologic perpetrator: intragastric inoculation of C. albicans causes epithelial necrosis through activation of IL- 23/IL-17 pathway in mice. In the oropharyngeal field, the fungus has recently been shown to secrete a cytolytic pore-forming toxin (PFT), candidalysin, into a pocket in the epithelium after penetrating into it to activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP1)/c-Fos pathway, triggering release of damage as well as immune cytokines. Similar phenomenon is also observed in vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). While candidalysin, exerting an effect even on the adjacent oropharyngeal cells, directly injures the tissue with damage cytokines, immune counterparts activate polymorphonuclear leukocytes to eventually terminate inflammation. Though the epithelial response to the fungus is different from organ to organ, it invades into and induces necrotic cellular damage to the intestinal mucosa through the toxin to translocate: the action of candidalysin is proven not only on the stratified squamous mucosa but on the single layer of the columnar epithelium. Since, by analogy with intestinal candidiasis, it is never difficult to speculate that the PFT inflicts such damage to the gastric mucosa, a theoretically strong possibility has come up that Candida-associated gastric ulcer is actually Candida-induced ulcer.
Kenji Sasaki received his MD in 1973 and PhD in 1977 from Tohoku University. He is a Board Certified Fellow and Preceptor of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society, Board Certified Gastroenterologist of the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology, Board Certified Member of the Japanese Society of Internal Medicine and Editorial Board Member of CRIM. He has given presentations at international medical congresses and published papers on gastroenterology in international journals.
Acclaimed by Prof Tarnawski at DDW 2012, he published his article “Candida-associated gastric ulcer relapsing in a different position in a different appearance.” in World J Gastroenterol 2012 Aug 28; 18 (32): 4450-4453, which was featured in the section of Infection and Immunity of World Biomedical Frontiers in September, 2013 and recommended by an associate research scientist on PubAdvanced in December, 2013. Invited to participate in a special issue titled “Candidiasis – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis” by Gynecol Reprod Med, he published a review article, an extended version of the above article titled “Candida-associated gastric ulcer until yesterday, today, and from tomorrow — In
quest of the etiology” in SciTz Gynecol Reprod Med 2017; 1(1): 1002. He served as a reviewer for CRIM, JMM, JPP and J Gastrointest Dig Syst.
- Shanghai Cell Therapy Research Institute, China
- Title:Development Safe and Potent CAR T Cell Therapy by Using an Immune Cell-Specific Chimeric Promoter
- Time :
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Traditional cancer treatments, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, have demonstrated very limited efficacy for patients with late-stage disease. Cancer immunotherapy has shown great promise in the treatment of patients with late-stage disease. CAR T cell application has produced impressive antitumor responses, but it is still associated with several safety concerns about the side-effects it may cause. We designed and screened a T cell-specific chimeric promoter, which was only active after antigen engagement. We placed this promoter upstream of the anti-programmed cell death protein 1 (anti-PD1) antibody gene, and this construct was co-transfected with the CAR construct into T cells. In vitro and in vivo, CAR T cells showed increased secretion of anti-PD-1 antibody under control of the promoter. The chimeric promoter may be a promising strategy to manipulate the content of immune checkpoint inhibitors or other proteins in future therapeutic approaches for cancer treatment.
Dr. Haixia Gao is currently the director of Nucleic Acid Center at Shanghai Cell Therapy Group, a company focuses on the development of cell therapy technology. She joined Shanghai Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital as an assistant researcher in 2010, and joined Shanghai Cell Therapy Group CO., LTD in 2017. With years of experience in basic research of cancer immunology, she is dedicated to develop innovative CAR T therapy for treatment of cancer. Her current research focuses on tumor immunotherapy with non-viral vector and mRNA-based therapeutics.
- Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia
- Title:Imaging Differences between Coronavirus Disease 2019, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome
- Time :
Since the outbreak of Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) infection in December 2019 in Wuhan, the capital Hubei province, central of China, more than 4 million people have contracted the virus worldwide. Despite the imposed precautions, coronavirus disease-19 is rapidly spreading with human-to-human transmission resulting in more than 290,000 death as of May 13, 2020 according to World Health Organization (WHO). The aim of this study was to revise the characteristic imaging features of Sever Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) during their outbreak, and to compare them with that of COVID- 19, to familiarize radiologists with the imaging spectrum of corona-virus syndromes. This study will help in more understanding and characterisation of COVID-19 to support the global efforts in combating its worldwide outbreak.
Dr. Osama Abdalla Mabrouk Kheiralla, Consultant Radiologist, Assistant Professor of Radiology – Radiological Sciences Department – College of Applied Medical Sciences – Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University – KSA. I am very interested in academic activities, especially research studies. I am very talented in conveying information and have very good ability to create good bonds with my students. I have supervised many research projects done by students’ groups. I have very wide experience in all radiological aspects including MRI and Spiral CT as well as all Ultrasound investigations. I have excellent experience in non-vascular intervention procedures like drain and biopsy from different body parts and nephrostomy tube insertion as well as ultrasound guided biopsy and CT guided biopsy. I believe that that learning is a process that never ends, and the good practitioner must never stop learning and should always try to keep on improving. Teaching is full of surprises and new situations, and one must be ready to adapt and discover new strategies of teaching. What remains true is the importance of understanding how to relate one’s knowledge to daily life practice.
- University of Paris Panthéon-Assas, France
- Title:The contested market of plasma
- Time :
Voluntary, anonymous free gift-giving has become nowadays the dominant norm for blood donation for transfusion purposes, in view of its established ability to satisfy the needs in labile blood products in satisfactory conditions of safety and cost. But the economy of blood products is also the place of one of the main exceptions to the principle of non-commercialization of body parts. We show that there exists a genuine international plasma market, which provides the raw materials for the production of blood protein products by pharmaceutical industries. The recent years have seen a considerable strengthening of the massive and globalized features of this market. We briefly describe the issues that this evolution raises, and we sketch some directions for a partial resolution of them. We notably explain why the development of contract fractionation appears both possible and desirable from an economic perspective in the present context.
Prof. Jean Mercier Ythier is professor of economics at the University of Paris, Panthéon-Assas, France. He graduated from the Institute of Political Studies of Paris (PhD, 1989). He was also a graduate student at Harvard University (1986-87). He went notably through positions of invited research fellow at the University of Montréal (Québec, Canada), assistant professor and associate professor of economics at the University of Paris Panthéon-Sorbonne and professor of economics at the University of Lorraine (France). Prof. Jean Mercier Ythier’s research interests include the theory of general competitive equilibrium, microeconomic theory, public economic theory, economic philosophy, altruism, ethics, and topics of economic anthropology.
- Maharaja Institute of Technology, Mysuru, India
- Title:Market Capitalization: Pre and Post COVID-19 Analysis
- Time :
This research paper focuses on the impact of COVID-19 on Indian Stock Market and shares performance. In other words, the article analyses the market capitalization correlation between the performances of shares and the growth of the share market, using the stock market data of Pre and post COVID-19 status by comparing the data from Jan’20 to Jun’20. The variables have positive and statistically strong significance on the changes in the market’s performance and the value of its market capitalization.
- University of Pernambuco, Brazil
- Title:Metronidazole and Amoxicillin Association in Aggressive Periodontitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
- Time :
The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of metronidazole and amoxicillin in combination with mechanical therapy for the treatment of aggressive periodontitis. This study was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines and was registered in the International Prospective Record of Systematic Reviews (CRD42018111595). The research was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases till December 2019 and included randomized clinical trials that analyzed whether the use of systemic metronidazole and amoxicillin improved the treatment response in patients with aggressive periodontitis. Altogether, 137 articles were identified and 4 studies were selected after applying the inclusion and the exclusion criteria. No statistically significant difference was observed in the clinical attachment level between the use of systemic antibiotics combined with scaling and root planning (SRP) and SRP without antibiotics (p = 0.52, mean deviation [MD]: 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.04–0.46). There was a statistically significant difference in the probing depth between the use of systemic antibiotics with SRP and the use of SRP alone (p = 0.02, MD: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.02–0.78). Gain in the clinical attachment level was not significantly higher when systemic antibiotics were used with SRP compared to SRP without antibiotics in the treatment of aggressive periodontitis. However, a statistically significant difference was observed in reduction in the probing depth.
PhD student in Dentistry/Endodontics, University of Pernambuco FOP/UPE. Master in Dental Radiology and Imaging from the Faculty of Dentistry São Leopoldo Mandic (2016). Graduated in Dentistry from Universidade Salgado de Oliveira (2002) and specialized in Periodontics from SCDP/ABO-PE (2006) and in Dental Radiology and Imaging from Faculdade de Odontologia São Leopoldo Mandic. Academic Coordinator of the Dentistry Course at UNIFAVIP-Caruaru. Professor of the disciplines of Periodontics and Supervised Internship in Periodontics at the University Center of Faculdade Escritor Osman Lins (UniFACOL). Professor of Imaging, Pre-clinical Periodontics and Clinical Periodontics at the University Center of Faculdade Boa Viagem – Recife.
- Galgotias University, India
- Title:Gel–Liquid Crystal Phase Transition and the Dynamics of Liposomes in Aqueous Solution
- Time :
In aqueous media, phospholipids are self-assembled into lipid bilayers. In biological membranes, proteins are hidden in lipid bilayers. It is well known that each protein and lipid have distinct characters. From the structures and functions study, it is revealed that different types of intermolecular interactions, viz. H-bond, van der Waals, hydrophobic, hydrophilic interactions play a significant role in the ability of these molecules. The DSC and dielectric spectroscopic techniques were used to study the gel-liquid crystal phase transition and the dynamics of DPPC molecules in aqueous media. The gel-gel pre-transition and gel-liquid crystal main transition were found from DSC study are strongly supported by x-ray measurement studied by Janiak et al. [Biochemistry, 15, 4575 (1976)] and present dielectric study from the temperature-dependent dielectric relaxation strength, relaxation time and symmetric shape parameter of the relaxation functions. From the complex dielectric study, four relaxation processes were observed from 40 Hz to 30 GHz frequency, which were ascribed to different molecular mechanisms, related to the structural units of the system. Surprisingly, relaxation process 3 observed near 10 MHz region due to motion of ions, which are related to the molecular motion of the lipid makes the bridge between lipid membrane and non-biological systems like ferroelectric liquid crystals. The process 3 is analogous to the variation of the soft mode observed in ferroelectric liquid crystals which was detected close to smectic-C*–smectic-A phase transition region. It is also interesting to find some physical properties of lipids such as depression of melting point, change of bilayer thickness, effect of domain structure, pH, etc. are strongly influenced by anesthetic molecules.
Dr. Shyamal Kumar Kundu is a Professor and Division chair in the Department of Physics, Galgotias University, Uttar Pradesh, India. Prior to that, he received Ph.D. degree from Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata, India. He was a postdoc at NCTU, Taiwan 2005, JSPS postdoc at Tokai University, Japan (2005-2007), Research Associate at Neutron Science Laboratory, The University of Tokyo, Japan (2007-2009), Research Scientist at the Jülich Center for Neutron Science (ICS-1), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany (2009-2012). He has received “Young Scientist Award” by Materials Research Society, Kolkata, India, “JSPS award” by JSPS, the Government of Japan and also “Bharat Ratna Dr. Abdul Kalam Gold Medal Award” by Global Economic Progress and Research Association, India. His scientific interests focus on the physical properties and the molecular dynamics of complex molecular systems like biomaterials, liquid crystals, gels, star like colloids and micelles. His expertise areas are Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy, Rheology, Neutron Scattering and Light Scattering.
- Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Iran
- Title:Efficacy and Safety of Proposed Bevacizumab Biosimilar BE1040V in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A Phase III, Randomized, Double-blind, Noninferiority Clinical Trial
- Time :
The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a proposed bevacizumab biosimilar to those of the reference
product in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).
This Phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind (patient- and assessor-blind), active controlled, 2-armed, parallel group, noninferiority trial was conducted in patients with histologically verified colorectal cancer with evidence of at least 1 metastasis. Patients with mCRC were randomized 2:1 to receive 5 mg/kg IV of either study drug plus FOLFIRI-3 (with repeated irinotecan 100 mg/m2
60-min infusion on day 3) or the reference drug plus FOLFIRI-3 every 2 weeks for 1 year. Progression-free survival (PFS) was the primary end point, and overall survival, objective response rate, and time to treatment failure as well as safety and immunogenicity were
secondary end points. The population assessable for PFS was per protocol, and the intention-to-treat population was used for sensitivity
analysis. Safety was assessed based on reports of adverse events, laboratory test results, and vital sign measurements.
A total of 126 patients were enrolled; PFS values in the biosimilar and reference arms were 232 days (7.7 months) and 210
days (7 months), respectively (P = 0.47). The hazard ratio of the biosimilar arm versus the reference arm was 0.79 in the per-protocol
population (90% CI, 0.46-1.35; P = 0.47). The upper limit for the 2- sided 90% CI was lower than the margin of 1.44, indicating that the
biosimilar drug was noninferior to the reference drug. The hazard ratio for overall survival in the intent-to-treat population was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.55-1.80; P = 0.99). The difference between other efficacy end points among the groups was not statistically significant. No significant difference was observed in the comparison of the two arms for safety. The antidrug antibody was positive in 1 patient in each arm.
The proposed biosimilar BE1040V was noninferior to the reference product in terms of efficacy in the treatment of mCRC, and
tolerability was comparable between the 2 drugs.
Doctor Sina Salari was born in Tehran in 1973 and got accepted to Isfahan Medical University in 2000. In 2007 he completed his specialty
training in Internal Medicine at Tehran University and completed his 3 years fellowship in Hematology and Oncology at Shahid Beheshti
Medical University, graduating with distinction in 2012. He was appointed as “Assistant Professor” and “Faculty member” in 2013. His
responsibilities from 2013 to 2020 include the followings: Director of the deputy of treatment of Oncology-Hematology and BMT department, Physician in charge of the international patients’ department (IPD), Head of the internal department and responsible
authorized physician of Ayatollah Taleghani Hospital. Some of his achievements in his field are as below: Presenting variety of lectures
in national seminars, publishing more than 30 research articles in national and international journals, Attaining ESMO, ASCO, ASBMT,
and APBMT membership. Dr.Salari has a particular interest in gastrointestinal and breast cancer. He has also widely researched in
lymphoma and multiple myeloma treatments and Cell therapy. He is member of the Cancer-Immunotherapy scientific committee and
organized the first cancer Immunotherapy Congress in Shiraz in 2019.
Dr.Salari performed the first research on the Monoclonal Antibody drug “Rituximab” for treating patients with lymphoma in Iran in 2011.
He is also involved in most studies related to Biosimilar medicines for cancers, collaborating with Iran Food and drug administration as a
consultant. He wrote the first RCT paper on the biosimilar drug of “Stivant” which was published in the Clinical Therapeutics journal in
- University Medical Center Groningen, Netherlands
- Title:Accepting Higher Morbidity in Exchange for Sacrificing Fewer Animals in Studies Developing Novel Infection-Control Strategies
- Time :
Preventing bacterial infections from becoming the leading cause of death by the year 2050 requires the development of novel, infection-control strategies, building heavily on biomaterials science, including nanotechnology. Pre-clinical (animal) studies are indispensable for this development. Often, animal infection outcomes bear little relation to human clinical outcome. Here, we review
conclusions from pathogen-inoculum dose-finding pilot studies for evaluation of novel infectioncontrol strategies in murine models. Pathogen-inoculum doses are generally preferred that produce the largest differences in quantitative infection outcome parameters between a control and an experimental group, without death or termination of animals due to having reached an inhumane
end-point during the study. However, animal death may represent a better end-point for evaluation than large differences in outcome parameters or number of days over which infection persists. The clinical relevance of lower pre-clinical outcomes, such as bioluminescence, colony forming units (CFUs) retrieved or more rapid clearance of infection is unknown, as most animals cure infection
without intervention, depending on pathogen-species and pathogen-inoculum dose administered. In human clinical practice, patients suffering from infection present to hospital emergency wards, frequently in life-threatening conditions. Animal infection-models should therefore use prevention of death and recurrence of infection as primary efficacy targets to be addressed by novel strategies.
To compensate for increased animal morbidity and mortality, animal experiments should solely be conducted for pre-clinical proof of principle and safety. With the advent of sophisticated in vitro models, we advocate limiting use of animal models when exploring pathogenesis or infection mechanisms.
Willem Woudstra is a first year PhD student in the biomedical engineering department at the University Medical Center Groningen. His main research goal is developing new strategies for (biomaterial associated) infections in animal models and therewith reduce the number of animals used in future infection studies. After finishing his Bachelor Degree, he started working as a technician and is co-author of several papers in the field of biomedical engineering. His research interests are biofilms, biomaterials associated infections, antimicrobials and animal infection studies.
- Sao Paulo University, Brazil
- Title:Evidence of Genomic Information and Structural Restrictions of HIV-1 PR and RT Gene Regions from Individuals Experiencing Antiretroviral Virologic Failure
- Time :
Objectives: This study analyzed Protease-PR and Reverse Transcriptase-RT HIV-1 genomic information entropy metrics among patients under antiretroviral virologic failure, according to the numbers of virologic failures or resistance mutations.
Methods: For this purpose, we used genomic sequences from PR and RT of HIV-1 from a cohort of chronic patients followed up at Sao Paulo Hospital. Results: Informational entropy proportionally increases with the number of antiretroviral virologic failures in PR and RT (p < .001). Affected regions of PR were related to catalytic and structural functions, such as Fulcrum (K20) Flap (M46) and Cantilever (A71). In RT, this occurred at Fingers (E44) and Palm (K219). Informational entropy increases according to the number of resistance mutations in PR and RT (p < .001). Higher PR entropy was proportional to the resistance mutation numbers in Fulcrum (L10), Active site (L24) Flap (M46), Cantilever (L63) and near Interface (L90). In RT, they related to regions responsible for protein stability such as Fingers (T39) and Palm (L100). Conclusions: The antiretroviral selective pressure affects HIV genomic informational entropy at the PR and RT regions, leading to the emergence of more unstable virions. Mapping the three-dimensional structure in these HIV-1 proteins is relevant to designing new antiretroviral targeting resistant strains. Biography
Research Interests: My research line involves the analysis of genomic signatures evolution of molecules and specific sites and epitopes selection and recognition for development of vaccines efficiency and anti-HIV drugs. I´m very motivated and interested in various Science projects and research experiments. I´m currently working on projects that involves the genome viral evolution and nanotechnology to HIV vaccine at University of Sao Paulo and Infectious Diseases Division, Department of Medicine, Federal University of São Paulo in collaboration to Telecommunications and Control Engineering Department, Engineering School, both in Brazil.
- National University of Singapore, Singapore
- Title:In-Silico Modelling to Assess and Predict the Outcome of Drug-Coated Balloon Therapy
- Time :
The advent of drug-eluting stents and drug-coated balloons have significantly improved the clinical outcome of patients with vascular occlusions. However, ischemic vascular disease remains the most common cause of death worldwide. Although the next generation of devices is aimed at improving the safety and efficacy of the treatment, current experimental methods are unable to capture the influence of atherosclerosis on these modalities. To address this, in our study, we use in-silico models to numerically evaluate the influence of an atheroma, nature of an excipient and discuss the possibility of an optimal therapeutic time. This study aims to demonstrate that the use of such computational models, could potentially lead to treatment modalities that are tailored to the needs of individual patients.
Karthic Anbalakan is a researcher at the National University of Singapore and has presented his findings at TCT-Connect: Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics and ICBME 2019. His research explores various interventional cardiovascular treatments, computational modelling, and experimental techniques.
- Hubei University of Medicine, China
- Title:Structural and Biochemical Analyses of the LdtMt2-Panipenem Adduct Provide New Insights Into the Effect of the 1-b-Methyl Group on Carbapenems
- Time :
Tuberculosis has attracted increased attention worldwide due to its high morality and its resistance to treatment with traditional antibacterial drugs. The L,D-transpeptidase LdtMt2 confers resistance to traditional b-lactams and is considered a target for anti-Tuberculosis treatment. Carbapenems are pro posed to inhibit Mycobacterium tuberculosis by repressing the activity of LdtMt2. The interaction mech anisms between LdtMt2 and carbapenems have been revealed by LdtMt2-carbapenem adduct structures along with various biochemical assays. Interestingly, the lack of the 1-b-methyl group in imipenem may be related to its high binding ability to LdtMt2. However, there is limited evidence on the interaction mode of LdtMt2 and panipenem, another carbapenem lacking the 1-b-methyl group. Herein, we identified the biochemical features of panipenem binding to LdtMt2. We further suggest that the presence of the 1-b-methyl group in carbapenems is indeed related to the ligand affinity of LdtMt2 and that the presence of the Y308 and Y318 residues in LdtMt2 stabilized the conformation of the LdtMt2-carbepenem adduct. Our research provides a structural basis for the development of novel carbapenems against
Dr. Kai Deng received his Bachelor degree from Wuhan University in 2007 and PhD from Chinese Academy of Sciences in 2012, respectively. Since 2012, he has been a faculty member as a Lecturer (2012-2014) and Associate Professor (2014-2020) in Hubei University of Medicine. Currently, he is the Director of department of Biological Sciences. He served for the Expert Evaluation Committee for the National
Natural Science Foundation of China. He won the honor of Chutian scholar in Hubei Province in 2018.
- National University of Cordoba, Argentina
- Title:Nanomaterials with Antimicrobial Activity Against Bacterial Resistant Strains
- Time :
One of the greatest problems in public health is the continued growing emergence of conventional antibiotic-therapy resistance. Our research group is focused in the synthesis and characterization of new antimicrobial nanomaterials as metallic nanoparticles and antifouling coating.
In this work we have demonstrated the reduction in biofilm growth. The strains used were of relevant clinical pathogens (as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus). They were treated with Photodynamic Antimicrobial Therapy (PACT) using low concentrations of amoxicillin-coated gold nanoparticles (amoxi@AuNP) as a photosensitizer . The viability reduction of 60% in S. aureus biofilms and 70% in P. aeruginosa biofilms were obtained after three hours of irradiation with white light and amoxi@AuNP. Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed that amoxi@AuNP could penetrate and cause damage to the biofilm matrix, and interact with bacteria cells. A strong biofilm production in P. aeruginosa was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy using acridine orange as a probe, and a markedly significant decrease in live bacteria was appreciated when PACT was applied . In conclusion, the use of amoxi@AuNP for PACT allows the viability reduction with high potential in the inhibition of clinical Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms. This novel strategy needs shorter irradiation times and lower concentrations of nanoparticles than other reports described. This could be attributed to two major innovations: the selectivity of the nanomaterial for the bacterial wall given by the amoxicillin, and the polydispersity of size and shapes, which seems to contribute to the photo-antibacterial capacity.
María Cecilia Becerra, Ph D, born in Córdoba, Argentina, graduated in Biochemistry in 1997 at Facultad de
Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. She specialized in Bacteriology and did the PhD studies at Departamento de Ciencias Farmacéuticas, at the same Faculty. She did postdoctoral studies in the topic of new drugs for Chagas disease treatment. Since 2007, is a research member of Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de Argentina (CONICET) and since 2015 is Professor of Pharmaceutical Microbiology and Director of the Sterilization Career at FCQ, UNC.
The interest of her research group is focused on the study of the antimicrobial mechanisms related to oxidative stress and nanomaterials with potential application for Photodynamic Antimicrobial Therapy (PACT).
- Sao Paulo State University, Brazil
- Title:Influence of Pathogens Causing Clinical Mastitis on Reproductive Variables of Dairy Cows
- Time :
In dairy cattle, mastitis is a disease of the mammary gland caused by pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and algae. Mastitis causes economic losses to dairy farms, as well as public health concerns. The reproductive efficiency of commercial dairy herds has important implications for the economic success of dairy operations and is tightly associated with the health status of cows. Mastitis has previously been linked with decreased fertility of dairy cows, but the effect of specific pathogens on the severity of this fertility reduction is still unclear. In this study, cows diagnosed with mastitis caused by major pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Mycoplasma spp., and environmental Streptococcus) needed more artificial inseminations (AI) than cows with mastitis caused by minor pathogens (Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium spp.) and healthy cows. Cows diagnosed with mastitis, independent of what pathogen was causing mastitis, had more days open compared with non-mastitic cows. The percentage of cows that successfully established pregnancy at the first AI was greater in the control group compared with cows in the major pathogens group, but not significantly different from cows in the minor pathogens group. Pregnancy loss was lower in the control group compared with that in the major pathogens group; however, there was no difference upon comparison with the minor pathogen group. Mastitis caused by gram-negative bacteria decreased percentage of pregnancy per first AI and increased days open and pregnancy loss compared with those in the control group. Cows with mastitis caused by gram-positive bacteria also had increased days open when compared with control cows. This study shows that different mastitis-causing bacteria can affect the fertility of cows differently. Mastitis events caused by major pathogens and gram-negative bacteria were associated with the greatest decrease in reproductive efficiency.
Helio Langoni -Sanitarist veterinary, graduated in Veterinary Medicine by Sao Paulo State University – UNESP (1976), specialization in Public health by University of Sao Paulo – USP (1980), and PhD in Virology by The University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover (1982-1985). Senior internship in University of Wisconsin, USA. Actually, is titular retired professor of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, UNESP, Botucatu, Sao Paulo. Permanent external professor of Animal Science program in University of Vila Velha-UVV. Was president of Brazilian Council of Milk Quality (CBQL). Brazilian representative in the International Society for Animal Hygiene (ISAH). Scientific reviewer of 24 periodicals. Has experience in Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Public Health, with emphasis in zoonosis, acting mainly in the following subjects: mastitis and milk quality, leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis, leishmaniosis, rabid, and another zoonosis. Is the editor-in-chief of the journal Revista Veterinaria e Zootecnia.