Cancer is currently a major threat to public health, being among the principal causes of death to the global population. With carcinogenesis mechanisms, cancer invasion, and metastasis remaining blurred, cancer diagnosis and novel drug delivery approaches should be developed urgently to enable management and treatment. A dream break-through would be a non-invasive instantaneous monitoring of cancer initiation and progression to fast-track diagnosis for timely specialist treatment decisions. These innovations would enhance the established treatment protocols, unlimited by evasive biological complexities during tumorigenesis. It is therefore contingent that emerging and future scientific technologies be equally biased towards such innovations by exploiting the apparent properties of new developments and materials especially nanomaterials. CNCs as nanomaterials have undisputable physical and excellent biological properties that enhanced their interest as biomedical materials. This article therefore highlights CNCs utility in cancer diagnosis and therapy. Their extraction, properties, modification, in- vivo/in-vitro medical applications, biocompatibility, challenges and future perspectives are precisely discussed.


Ishaq Lugoloobi (orcid No: 0000-0003-1640-6219) received his B.Sc., in Chemistry and Biology (major) and Education (minor) at Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST), Uganda, with support from the meritorious Uganda government undergraduate scholarship and emerged among the top best students at the university.
In 2018, he received an international Chinese government scholarship to continue his studies. In 2021, he graduated as a research student from Donghua University, Shanghai-China, pursuing M.Sc. Chemistry Engineering and Technology degree. His research focus is on the nanoengineering of biological and chemical molecules for chemical applications such as conductivity and biological applications such as drug delivery. He also has an interest in engineering pharmaceutical molecules.